॥ गीता ध्यानम् ॥
By Śrī Ādi Śaṅkarācārya
Deutsche Übersetzung von Michael Stibane 2004
Englische Übersetzung von A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda
The Immortal Nectar of the Bhagavad-gītā
Through the centuries, India’s greatest philosophers and spiritualists have praised the Bhagavad-gītā as the distilled essence of the eternal Vedic wisdom. In his Meditations on the Bhagavad-gītā, versified here, the renowned sixth-century philosopher Śaṅkara glorifies the Gītā and its divine author, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Although universally celebrated as an impersonalist, here Śaṅkara reveals his devotion to the original personal form of God, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
॥ गीताध्यानम् ॥
|| gītādhyānam ||
ॐ पार्थाय प्रतिबोधितां भगवता नारायणेन स्वयं
व्यासेन ग्रथितां पुराण मुनिना मध्ये महाभारतम्
अम्ब त्वामनुसन्दधामि भगवद्गीते भवद्वेषिणीम्
oṁ pārthāya pratibodhitāṁ bhagavatā nārāyaṇena svayaṁ
vyāsena grathitāṁ purāṇa-muninā madhye mahābhāratam
advaitāmṛta-varṣiṇīṁ bhagavatīm aṣṭādaśādhyāyinīm
amba tvām anusandadhāmi bhagavad-gīte bhava-dveṣiṇīm
Oṁ - O Bhagavad-gītā, through Thy eighteen chapters Thou showerest upon man the immortal nectar Of Advaita, the wisdom of the Absolute. O blessed Gītā, by Thee, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself enlightened Arjuna. Afterward, the ancient sage Vyāsa included Thee in the Mahābhārata. O loving mother, destroyer of man’s rebirth into the darkness of this mortal world, upon Thee I meditate.
Oṁ - O Bhagavad-gītā, durch welche Arjuna vom Erhabenen, von Narayana selbst, belehrt wurde und die von Veda Vyasa, dem Seher der Vorzeit, in die Mitte des Mahabharata gestellt wurde. Du regnest den Nektar der Unsterblichkeit, bist die Göttliche Mutter, bestehst aus achtzehn Kapiteln, o liebevolle Mutter, in Dich will ich mich vertiefen, die Du die Wiedergeburt vernichtest.
नमोऽस्तु ते व्यास विशाल बुद्धे फुल्लारविन्दायत पत्र-नेत्र ।
येन त्वया भारत-तैल-पूर्णः प्रज्वालितो ज्ञानमयः प्रदीपः ॥
namo'stu te vyāsa viśāla-buddhe
phullāravindāyata patra-netra ।
yena tvayā bhārata-taila-pūrṇaḥ
prajvālito jñānamayaḥ pradīpaḥ ॥
Salutations to thee, O Vyāsa. Thou art of mighty intellect, and thine eyes are large as the petals of the full-blown lotus. It was thou who brightened this lamp of wisdom, filling it with the oil of the Mahābhārata.
Verehrung Dir, o Vyasa von erhabenem Intellekt, dessen Augen voll entfalteten Lotusblüten gleichen und von dem die mit dem Öl des Mahabharata gefüllte Lampe der Erkenntnis entzündet wurde.
प्रपन्न-पारिजाताय तोत्र-वेत्रैक-पाणये ।
ज्ञान-मुद्राय कृश्णाय गीतामृतदुहे नमः ॥
gītāmṛta-duhe namaḥ ॥
I salute Thee, O Kṛṣṇa, O Thou who art the refuge of ocean-born Lakṣmī And all who take refuge at Thy lotus feet. Thou art indeed the wish-fulfilling tree for Thy devotee. Thy one hand holds a staff for herding cows, And thy other hand is raised showing jñāna-mudrā — the thumb touching the tip of Thy forefinger, indicating divine knowledge. Salutations to Thee, O Supreme Lord, for Thou art the milker of the ambrosia of the Gītā.
Ich verneige mich ehrfurchtsvoll vor Shri Krishna, der denen, die bei ihm Zuflucht suchen, alle Wünsche erfüllt, der den Stachelstock des Hirten trägt und die Handhaltung der Erkenntnis zeigt, dem Melker des Unsterblichkeitstrankes der Gita.
सर्वोपनिषदो गावो दोग्धा गोपालनन्दनः ।
पार्थो वत्सः सुधीर्भोक्ता दुग्धं गीतमृतं महत् ॥
dogdhā gopāla-nandanaḥ ।
pārtho vatsaḥ sudhīr bhoktā
dugdhaṁ gītāmṛtaṁ mahat ॥
The Upaniṣads are as a herd of cows, Lord Kṛṣṇa, son of a cowherd, is their milker, Arjuna is the calf, the supreme nectar of the Gītā is the milk, and the wise man of purified intellect is the drinker.
Alle Upanishaden sind die Kühe, Krishna, der Sohn des Kuhirten, ist der Melker, Arjuna das Kalb und die einsichtsvollen Menschen sind die Genießer der Milch des unvergleichlichen Unsterblichkeits-Trankes der Gita.
वसुदेव-सुतं देवं कंस-चाणूर-मर्दनम् ।
देवकी-परामनन्दं कृष्णं वन्दे जगद्-गुरुम् ॥
kṛṣṇaṁ vande jagad-gurum ॥
Thou son of Vasudeva, destroyer of the demons Kaṁsa and Cāṇūra, Thou supreme bliss of mother Devakī, O Thou, guru of the universe, teacher of the worlds, Thee, O Kṛṣṇa, I salute.
Ehrfurchtsvoll grüße ich Shri Krishna, den göttlichen Sohn des Vasudeva, den Vernichter von Kamsa und Chanura, die höchste Seligkeit seiner Mutter Devaki, den Lehrer des ganzen Universums.
भीष्म-द्रोण-तटा जयद्रथ-जला गान्धार-नीलोत्पला
शल्य-ग्रहवती कृपेण वहिनी कर्णेन वेलाकुला ।
सोत्तीर्णा खलु पाण्डवै राण-नदी कैवर्तकः केश्वः ॥
bhīṣma-droṇa-taṭā jayadratha-jalā gāndhāra-nīlotpalā
śalya-grahavatī kṛpeṇa vahinī karṇena velākulā ।
sottīrṇā khalu pāṇḍavai rāṇa-nadī kaivartakaḥ keśvaḥ ॥
Of that terrifying river of the battlefield of Kurukṣetra over which the Pāṇḍavas victoriously crossed, Bhīṣma and Droṇa were as the high banks, Jayadratha as the river’s water, the King of Gāndhāra the blue water-lily, Śalya the shark, Kṛpa the current, Karṇa the mighty waves, Aśvatthāmā and Vikarṇa the dread alligators, and Duryodhana the very whirlpool — but Thou, O Kṛṣṇa, wast the ferryman!
Der reissende Fluss des Krieges - dessen Ufer Bhishma und Drona darstellen, in dem Jayadratha das Wasser, der König von Gandhara die blaue Wasserrose, Shalya der Raubfisch, Kripa die Strömung, Karna die Wogen, Ashvattama und Vikarna die schrecklichen Krokodile und Duryodhana der allesverschlingende Strudel ist - konnte von den Pandavas mit Krishna als Fährmann überquert werden.
पाराशर्य-वचः सरोजम् अमलं गीतार्थ-गन्धोत्कटं
नानाख्यानक-केशरं हरि-कथा-सम्बोधनाबोधितम् ।
लोके सज्जन-षट्पदैर् अहर्-अहः पेपीयमानं मुदा
भूयाद् भारत-पङ्कजं कलि-मल-प्रध्वंसि नः श्रेयसे ॥
pārāśarya-vacaḥ sarojam amalaṁ gītārtha-gandhotkaṭaṁ
nānākhyānaka-keśaraṁ hari-kathā-sambodhanābodhitam ।
loke sajjana-ṣaṭpadair ahar-ahaḥ pepīyamānaṁ mudā
bhūyād bhārata-paṅkajaṁ kali-mala-pradhvaṁsi naḥ śreyase ॥
May the spotless lotus of the Mahābhārata that grows on the waters of the words of Parāśara's son, Vyāsa, and of which the Bhagavad-gītā is the irresistibly sweet fragrance and its tales of heroes. The full-blown petals fully opened by the talk of Lord Hari, Who destroys the sins of Kali-yuga, and on which daily light the nectar-seeking souls, as so many bees swarming joyously — may this lotus of the Mahābhārata bestow on us the highest good.
Möge dieser makellose Lotus des Mahabharata, der aus den Worten von Veda Vyasa, dem Sohn des Parashara, entspross, der zahlreiche Geschichten enthält, vom Wohlgeruch der Bhagavad Gita durchdrungen ist und zu voller Blüte gelangt durch die Erzählungen über Hari, Tag für Tag als Nektar von den guten Menschen in der Welt voller Freude getrunken werden, so dass er die Unreinheiten des Kali-Yuga beseitigt und uns das Heil bringt.
मूकं करोति वाचालं पङ्गुं लङ्घयते गिरिम् ।
यत्कृपा तमहं वन्दे परमानन्द माधवम् ॥
mūkaṁ karoti vācālaṁ
paṅguṁ laṅghayate girim ।
yat-kṛpā tam ahaṁ vande
Salutations to that all-blissful Mādhava, (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa), the embodiment of supreme bliss, by whose grace and compassion the dumb become eloquent and the lame cross mountains — Him I salute!
Ich grüße Shri Krishna, Madhava, dessen Mitgefühl den Stummen beredt macht und den Lahmen Berge überwinden lässt, die Quelle höchster Glückseligkeit.
यं ब्रह्मा वरुणेन्द्र-रुद्र-मरुतः स्तुन्वन्ति दिव्यैः स्तवैर्
वेदैः साङ्ग-पद-क्रमोपनिषदैर् गायन्ति यं साम-गाः ॥
ध्यानावस्थित-तद्-गतेन मनसा पश्यन्ति यं योगिनो ।
यस्यान्तं न विदुः सुरासुर-गणा देवाय तस्मै नमः ॥
yaṁ brahmā varuṇendra-rudra-marutaḥ stunvanti divyaiḥ stavair
vedaiḥ sāṅga-pada-kramopaniṣadair gāyanti yaṁ sāma-gāḥ ॥
dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yogino ।
yasyāntaṁ na viduḥ surāsura-gaṇā devāya tasmai namaḥ ॥
Salutations to that supreme shining one whom the creator Brahmā, Varuṇa, Indra, Rudra, Marut, and all divine beings praise with hymns, whose glories are sung by the verses of the Vedas, of whom the singers of Sāma sing and of whose glories the Upaniṣads proclaim in full choir, whom the yogīs see with their minds absorbed in perfect meditation, and of whom all the hosts of gods and demons know not the limitations. To Him, the Supreme God, Kṛṣṇa, be all salutations — Him we salute! Him we salute! Him we salute!
Verehrung jenem Gott, den Brahma, Varuna, Indra und die Marut mit göttlichen Hymnen preisen, den die Saman-Sänger in den Veden und Upanishaden besingen, den die Yogis in ihrer Meditation im Geiste erschauen und dessen Ende all die Scharen der Götter und Dämonen nicht kennen.
Purport by His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda
The Science of Self Realization / 3. Discovering the Roots
PURPORT VERSES 1 AND 2:
Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya was an impersonalist from the materialistic point of view. But he never denied the spiritual form known as sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1], or the eternal, all-blissful form of knowledge that existed before the material creation. When he spoke of Supreme Brahman as impersonal, he meant that the Lord’s sac-cid-ānanda form was not to be confused with a material conception of personality. In the very beginning of his commentary on the Gītā, he maintains that Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Lord, is transcendental to the material creation. The Lord existed before the creation as the transcendental personality, and He has nothing to do with material personality. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the same Supreme Personality, and He has no connection with a material body. He descends in His spiritual, eternal form, but foolish people mistake His body to be like ours. Śaṅkara’s preaching of impersonalism is especially meant for teaching foolish persons who consider Kṛṣṇa to be an ordinary man composed of matter.
No one would care to read the Gītā if it had been spoken by a material man, and certainly Vyāsadeva would not have bothered to incorporate it into the history of the Mahābhārata. According to the above verses, Mahābhārata is the history of the ancient world, and Vyāsadeva is the writer of this great epic. The Bhagavad-gītā is identical with Kṛṣṇa; and because Kṛṣṇa is the Absolute Supreme Personality of Godhead, there is no difference between Kṛṣṇa and His words. Therefore the Bhagavad-gītā is as worshipable as Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, both being absolute. One who hears the Bhagavad-gītā “as is” actually hears the words directly from the lotus lips of the Lord. But unfortunate persons say that the Gītā is too antiquated for the modern man, who wants to find out God by speculation or meditation.
PURPORT VERSE 3:
Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya explicitly says, “You fools, just worship Govinda and that Bhagavad-gītā spoken by Nārāyaṇa Himself,” yet foolish people still conduct their research work to find out Nārāyaṇa; consequently they are wretched, and they waste their time for nothing. Nārāyaṇa is never wretched nor daridra; rather, He is worshiped by the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, as well as by all living entities. Śaṅkara declared himself to be “Brahman,” but he admits Nārāyaṇa, or Kṛṣṇa, to be the Supreme Personality who is beyond the material creation. He offers his respects to Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Brahman, or Parabrahman, because He (Kṛṣṇa) is worshipable by everyone. Only the fools and enemies of Kṛṣṇa, who cannot understand what the Bhagavad-gītā is (though they make commentaries on it), say, “It is not the personal Kṛṣṇa to whom we have to surrender ourselves utterly, but the unborn, beginningless Eternal who speaks through Kṛṣṇa.” Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. Whereas Śaṅkara, the greatest of the impersonalists, offers his due respects to Kṛṣṇa and His book the Bhagavad-gītā, the foolish say that “we need not surrender to the personal Kṛṣṇa.” Such unenlightened people do not know that Kṛṣṇa is absolute and that there is no difference between His inside and outside. The difference of inside and outside is experienced in the dual, material world. In the absolute world there is no such difference, because in the absolute everything is spiritual (sac-cid-ānanda), and Nārāyaṇa, or Kṛṣṇa, belongs to the absolute world. In the absolute world there is only the factual personality, and there is no distinction between body and soul.
PURPORT VERSE 4:
Unless one understands spiritual variegatedness, one cannot understand the transcendental pastimes of the Lord. In the Brahma-saṁhitā it is said that Kṛṣṇa’s name, form, quality, pastimes, entourage, and paraphernalia are all ānanda-cinmaya-rasa—in short, everything of His transcendental association is of the same composition of spiritual bliss, knowledge, and eternity. There is no end to His name, form, etc., unlike in the material world, where all things have their end. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, only fools deride Him; whereas it is Śaṅkara, the greatest impersonalist, who worships Him, His cows, and His pastimes as the son of Vasudeva and pleasure of Devakī.
PURPORT VERSE 5:
Śaṅkara describes Him as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. Does he mean thereby that he is worshiping an ordinary, material man? He worships Kṛṣṇa because he knows that Kṛṣṇa’s birth and activities are all supernatural. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.9), Kṛṣṇa’s birth and activities are mysterious and transcendental, and therefore only the devotees of Kṛṣṇa can know them perfectly. Śaṅkara was not such a fool that he would accept Kṛṣṇa as an ordinary man and at the same time offer Him all devotional obeisances, knowing Him as the son of Devakī and Vasudeva. According to the Bhagavad-gītā, only by knowing the transcendental birth and activities of Kṛṣṇa can one attain liberation by acquiring a spiritual form like Kṛṣṇa’s. There are five different kinds of liberation. One who merges into the spiritual auras of Kṛṣṇa, known as the impersonal Brahman effulgence, does not fully develop his spiritual body. But one who fully develops his spiritual existence becomes an associate of Nārāyaṇa or Kṛṣṇa in different spiritual abodes. One who enters into the abode of Nārāyaṇa develops a spiritual form exactly like Nārāyaṇa’s (four-handed), and one who enters into the highest spiritual abode of Kṛṣṇa, known as Goloka Vṛndāvana, develops a spiritual form of two hands like Kṛṣṇa’s. Śaṅkara, as an incarnation of Lord Śiva, knows all these spiritual existences, but he did not disclose them to his then Buddhist followers because it was impossible for them to know about the spiritual world. Lord Buddha preached that void is the ultimate goal, so how could his followers understand spiritual variegatedness? Therefore Śaṅkara said, brahma satyaṁ jagan mithyā, or, material variegatedness is false but spiritual variegatedness is fact. In the Padma Purāṇa Lord Śiva has admitted that he had to preach the philosophy of māyā, or illusion, in the Kali-yuga as another edition of the “void” philosophy of Buddha. He had to do this by the order of the Lord for specific reasons. He disclosed his real mind, however, by recommending that people worship Kṛṣṇa, for no one can be saved simply by mental speculations composed of word jugglery and grammatical maneuvers. Śaṅkara further instructs:
भज गोविन्दं भज गोविन्दं भज गोविन्दं मूढ-मते ।
सम्प्राप्ते सन्निहिते काले न हि न हि रक्षति डुकृञ्-करणे ॥
bhaja govindaṁ bhaja govindaṁ
bhaja govindam mūḍha-mate
samprāpte sannihite kāle
na hi na hi rakṣati ḍukṛñ-karaṇe
“You intellectual fools, just worship Govinda, just worship Govinda, just worship Govinda. Your grammatical knowledge and word jugglery will not save you at the time of death.”
PURPORT VERSES 6, 7, AND 8:
Foolish followers of foolish speculators cannot understand the meaning of offering salutations to Lord Kṛṣṇa, the embodiment of bliss. Śaṅkara himself offered his salutations to Lord Kṛṣṇa so that some of his intelligent followers might understand the real fact by the example set by their great master, Śaṅkara, the incarnation of Lord Śiva. But there are many obstinate followers of Śaṅkara who refuse to offer their salutations to Lord Kṛṣṇa and instead mislead innocent persons by injecting materialism into the Bhagavad-gītā and confusing innocent readers by their commentaries, and consequently the readers never have the opportunity to become blessed by offering salutations to Lord Kṛṣṇa, the cause of all causes. The greatest disservice to humanity is to keep mankind in darkness about the science of Kṛṣṇa, or Kṛṣṇa consciousness, by distorting the sense of the Gītā.
PURPORT VERSE 9:
By recitation of the ninth verse of his meditation, quoted from the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Śaṅkara has indicated that Lord Kṛṣṇa is worshipable by one and all, including himself. He gives hints to materialists, impersonalists, mental speculators, “void” philosophers, and all other candidates subjected to the punishment of material miseries—just offer salutations to Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is worshiped by Brahmā, Śiva, Varuṇa, Indra, and all other demigods. He has not mentioned, however, the name of Viṣṇu, because Viṣṇu is identical with Kṛṣṇa. The Vedas and the Upaniṣads are meant for understanding the process by which one can surrender unto Kṛṣṇa. The yogīs try to see Him (Kṛṣṇa) within themselves by meditation. In other words, it is for all the demigods and demons who do not know where the ultimate end is that Śaṅkara teaches, and he especially instructs the demons and the fools to offer salutations to Kṛṣṇa and His words, the Bhagavad-gītā, by following in his footsteps. Only by such acts will the demons be benefited, not by misleading their innocent followers by so-called mental speculations or show-bottle meditations. Śaṅkara directly offers salutations to Kṛṣṇa, as if to show the fools, who are searching after light, that here ls light like the sun. But the fallen demons are like owls that will not open their eyes on account of their fear of the sunlight itself. These owls will never open their eyes to see the sublime light of Kṛṣṇa and His words the Bhagavad-gītā. They will, however, comment on the Gītā with their closed owl-eyes to mislead their unfortunate readers and followers. Śaṅkara, however, discloses the light to his less intelligent followers and shows that the Bhagavad-gītā and Kṛṣṇa are the only source of light. This is all to teach the sincere seekers of truth to offer salutation to Lord Kṛṣṇa and thus surrender unto Him without misgivings. That is the highest perfection of life, and that is the highest teaching of Śaṅkara, the great learned scholar whose teachings drove the voidist philosophy of Buddha out of India, the land of knowledge. Oṁ tat sat.
The Gītā Dhyānam (Sanskrit:गीता द्यानम्), also called the Gītā Dhyāna or the Dhyāna Ślokas, is a 9-Verse Sanskrit poem which is chanted before starting the study of Bhagavad-gītā. The purpose of the Dyānam Slokas is to invoke the Lord's grace to ward off the obtacles that may come, so that one can successfully complete the study of Bhagavad-gītā. In English, the meaning of Gītā Dhyānam can be translated literally as "meditation on the Gita," and it is also sometimes called the Invocation to the Gita
- Alternative English Translation of the Gītā Dhyānam Verses-
Oṁ - O Mother Bhagvadgita ! with which was Partha enlightened by Lord Narayana himself, which was composed and placed in the middle of Mahabharata by the ancient Sage Vyaasa, which showers the nectarine Advaita philosophy of Non-duality, which is glorious, which contains eighteen chapters, and which is an antidote to the the experience of change (Samsaara), I constantly meditate upon Thee. (Verse 1)
Salutations unto thee, O! Vyaasa, -- whose intellect is vast, whose eyes are as large as the petals of a full-blown lotus, by whom was lighted the lamp of wisdom, full of the Mahabharata – oil (essence). (Verse 2)
Salutations to Krishna – who holds a cane in one hand and Gyaanamudra (in the other) who is the Tree of fulfillment (Paarijaata) to all those who surrender unto Him, who has milked the nectar of Gita. (Verse 3)
All the Upanishads are the cows, the son of the cowherd is the milker, Partha is the calf, man of pure intellect is the enjoyer and the supreme nectar of Gita is the milk. (Verse 4)
I salute Lord Krishna -- the divine son of Vasudeva, the destroyer of Kamsa and Chanoora, the Supreme Bliss of Devaki, the Teacher of the Universe. (Verse 5)
The battle-river with Bhishma and Drona as its banks, with Jayadratha as its water, with King of Gandhara as the blue waterlily, with Shalya as the shark, Kripa as the current, Karna as the high waves with Ashwatthama and Vikarna as terrible crocodiles, Duryodhana as its whirlpool – was indeed crossed over by the Pandavas with Lord Krishna as the ferry-man. (Verse 6)
With Bhishma and Drona as it’s banks, Jayadratha as it’s water, Gandhara as blue water lily, Salya as shark, Kripa as the speedy river current, Karna as it’s breakers, Ashwatthama and Vikarna as frightful crocodiles and Duryodhana as it’s whirlpools, the river of battle was successfully crossed by the Pandavas, only because their boatman was Keshava, Lord Krishna. (Verse 6)
May the spotless lotus of Mahabharata – which is born in the lake of the words of Paraashara’s son (Vyaasa), which is rich with the fragrance of the import of Gita, which has many narratives as its filaments, which is fully blossomed by the story of Lord Hari which joyously drunk day after day by the bees of good and pure men, which is the destroyer of the imperfections of Kali-yuga – bring about supreme good to us. (Verse 7)
I salute that Supreme Bliss, Madhava whose grace renders the mute eloquent and makes the cripple scale mountains. (Verse 8)
Salutations to that God whom Brahma, Varuna, Indra, Rudra, and Marut praise with divine hymns, whom the singers of Saama Veda invoke by the Vedas with their parts, sections and Upanishads, whom the yogis see in perfect meditation with their concentrated minds, whose limit the devas and asuras do not know. (Verse 9)
सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः ।
yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo
Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear. (Bhagvad-gītā Ch. 18- ślokā 66)
Wherever there is Kṛṣṇa, the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory, extraordinary power, and morality. That is my opinion. (Bhagvad-gītā Ch. 18- ślokā 78)